jueves, 27 de febrero de 2014
viernes, 21 de febrero de 2014
As parents you are your child's most influential teacher with an important part to play in helping your child to learn to read.
Here are some suggestions on how you can help to make this a positive experience.
1. Choose a quiet time
Set aside a quiet time with no distractions. Ten to fifteen minutes is usually long enough.
2. Make reading enjoyable
Make reading an enjoyable experience. Sit with your child. Try not to pressurize if he or she is reluctant. If your child loses interest then do something else.
3. Maintain the flow
If your child mispronounces a word do not interrupt immediately. Instead allow opportunity for self-correction. It is better to tell a child some unknown words to maintain the flow rather than insisting on trying to build them all up from the sounds of the letters. If your child does try to 'sound out' words, encourage the use of letter sounds rather than 'alphabet names'.
4. Be positive
If your child says something nearly right to start with that is fine. Don't say 'No. That's wrong,' but 'Let's read it together' and point to the words as you say them. Boost your child's confidence with constant praise for even the smallest achievement.
5. Success is the key
Parents anxious for a child to progress can mistakenly give a child a book that is too difficult. This can have the opposite effect to the one they are wanting. Remember 'Nothing succeeds like success'. Until your child has built up his or her confidence, it is better to keep to easier books. Struggling with a book with many unknown words is pointless. Flow is lost, text cannot be understood and children can easily become reluctant readers.
6. Visit the Library
Encourage your child to use the public library regularly.
7. Regular practice
Try to read with your child on most school days. 'Little and often' is best. Teachers have limited time to help your child with reading.
Your child will most likely have a reading diary from school. Try to communicate regularly with positive comments and any concerns. Your child will then know that you are interested in their progress and that you value reading.
9. Talk about the books
There is more to being a good reader than just being able to read the words accurately. Just as important is being able to understand what has been read. Always talk to your child about the book; about the pictures, the characters, how they think the story will end, their favorite part. You will then be able to see how well they have understood and you will help them to develop good comprehension skills.
10. Variety is important
Remember children need to experience a variety of reading materials eg. picture books, hard backs, comics, magazines, poems, and information books.
Shared from www.topmarks.co.uk
domingo, 16 de febrero de 2014
Physical"Pets provide an impetus for running and practicing motor skills," says Sheryl Dickstein, Ph.D., Director of Humane Education for the ASPCA. Walking a dog or running in the yard and throwing a ball are great ways to exercise the dog as well as for children to get away from sedentary indoor activities and move around. Small motor skills can be encouraged by allowing children to scoop food and pour water into dishes, and by helping to groom them. Depending on the child's age, parental supervision is recommended for both the child's and the pet's safety.
SocialFor children especially, pets can be wonderful social facilitators. Children are more prone to approach and interact with another child who is playing with a pet. In this way, a pet can be the bridge between a less socially outgoing child and other potential playmates.
A pet itself can be a social object for children because of the nature of their relationship. "Because animals accept us for who we are, pets give some practice in a social relationship," says Dickstein. Carlie Van Willigen's five-year-old son Murphy is developmentally disabled, and until the family got a dog two years ago, his mother reports that he never really noticed his surroundings. That changed when the dog came into the house.
"For a while, he didn't seem to even notice the dog, until one day he was running through the kitchen and skidded to a stop in front of the dog and started petting her. Eventually, he began throwing his ball and the dog would fetch it and he thought that was the greatest thing." Van Willigen sees their dog as one of the catalysts that helped Murphy learn that there is a world outside of himself and his own needs.
EmotionalPets can facilitate various aspects of emotional development such as self-esteem and a sense of responsibility. Says Dickstein, "As kids age and take on more of the care for the pet, it helps to build self-confidence." She points out however, that it is a misunderstood fact that pets teach children responsibility. "Parents teach responsibility," explains Dickstein, "Pets just make a good vehicle for learning."
The responsibility a child has for her pet needs be age appropriate. At the age of three, a child can help to fill food bowls. By five, he can begin to take on some basic grooming tasks as well as to help clean the pet's living area. As children reach the mid-elementary school aged years, they can begin walking a dog independently, and as the teen years approach, the child will most likely be able to take on the bulk of the responsibility for a house pet. Keeping pet-oriented tasks age-appropriate is not only necessary for the safety of the pet, but for the child as well -- both physically and emotionally.
CognitiveAs children grow, they may develop an interest in a specific type or breed of animal. Encouraging children to read about their favorite pet or to take part in obedience classes with a parent and the pet can all encourage a child's cognitive development as it sparks the desire for learning. Bringing the child along to a veterinarian appointment will give him a chance to ask questions about proper care and his pet's health.
With proper supervision, allowing children to research information about their pet on the Internet is another way they can learn about the pet's special needs and unique characteristics as well as to correspond with other owners of the same type of pet. If your child's desired pet is a horse but you live in a second story apartment, encourage your child to research horses anyway. Even if they can't have the pet of their choice, the learning will be valuable to them anyway.
Pets as therapyBecause of the special bond that often develops between pet and child, pets can sometimes fill the role of comforter. Since the relationship is non-judgmental from the pet's perspective, a hurting child might be more willing to initially trust a pet than a person.
Karen Hawkins runs a healing farm in Maine where she welcomes both children and animals who are in need of healing. Having worked extensively with foster children, Hawkins has seen the wonders that pets can work in the lives of these emotionally scarred children. "Some of my foster children had little or no nurturing when they were young. Having them help me nurture orphaned wildlife gave them some personal experiences of how nurturing should have been for them. I saw angry, sullen and sometimes downright vicious children - usually teens but sometimes younger - slowly become softer and milder in their behaviors. They began to trust more. They learned to confide their secrets to the animals and eventually that made it easier for them to begin to trust me enough to confide in me."
Brining a pet into the family is not a decision that should be made lightly. It first must be a commitment by the parents, not the child, as they will ultimately be responsible for the pet's welfare. Once that commitment has been made, however, and an appropriate pet has been found for the family, the joys and benefits of the pet relationship will last for many years to come.
Shared from www.sheknows.com